4 Types, and Functions of Political Parties

 A political party is a collection of individuals or an organized group that seeks to influence the government to implement its ideals or programs; in his definition of a political party from 1990, Dr. B.C. Nwankwo described it as an organized group of persons or individuals looking to take over the government to reap the rewards of such control.

A political party's primary purpose is to win elections to obtain power; it has no clear ideology or stated goals. Therefore, if given a chance to create a government, a political party can be called an organized collection of persons or individuals to control the governmental machinery.

4 Types, and Functions of Political Parties


Elections and the Roles of Political Parties

Elections and politics are carried out employing political parties. The parties' goal is to influence politics and elections to bring about change or gain power. Political parties aim to organize and persuade the electorates on the merits of their policies and the flaw in their rival programs through ongoing meetings, lectures, pamphlet distribution, radio and television broadcasts, newspaper editorials, debates, conferences, and book publications. This results in lively and meaningful political discussions.

The parties choose the most qualified candidate for the election using their apparatus. Citizens and the public can choose parties and candidates for elections in a meaningful way thanks to political parties' campaigns and presentations of their programs, manifestos, and policies to the electorate. The parties and their candidates discuss and debate political matters in newspapers, journals, radio, and television shows. Parties' beliefs are carefully examined and argued to help the public make a decision.

During campaigns, the electorates know the candidates' personalities for political office. Political parties assist in educating and bringing together people of different ethnic backgrounds and religious beliefs through their network of organizations at the national, state, municipal, and ward levels of government. Election campaigns and campaigning make it feasible for alternative governments led by various parties.

When the ruling party fails the populace, the electorates and citizens are given a chance to make a different alternative. In an election, a party might play many different roles. The complicated nature of campaigns, the creation of ideology, programs, etc., could only be carried out through the party structure. Without using the party apparatus, no one person can readily organize themselves and run a campaign. Party politics, more than any other system, express the interests and attitudes of its constituents.

4 Types of Political Parties

Teaching you the type of political parties that exist today is the main reason for this post, and I will explain the different types of political parties and what they stand for.

Direct Party

A direct party is created when members sign up to join, pay dues every month, and routinely attend meetings. Individual registration is permitted in a direct party, as opposed to collective registration in trade unionism. The sorts of parties that are currently part of Nigeria's democratic system are examples of direct parties.

Indirect Party

Political party membership obtained through a union or other organizations is called an indirect party. In an indirect party, membership is only possible through organizations; there is neither place nor option for individuals to join the party directly. The socialist and catholic parties in France and the Soviet Union, as well as the Labour party in Britain, are examples of indirect parties.

Elite Party

This kind of political party is typically founded by the social elite. Political parties of this sort can only admit intellectuals, technocrats, and organizations from the business, academic, or government sectors. Elite or cadre parties are more concerned with member quality than membership numbers. They firmly think that a man with a solid educational background or influential position can win over voters more readily in elections than a man with a weak intellect.

Mass Party

Political parties have been referred to be "mass parties" due to specific organizational and management methods. The formal organizations known as parties were developed in the 19th century and were crucial in providing the majority of newly enfranchised people with adequate support. The goal of mass parties is to get as much support as possible. The party's fundamental tenet is that strength comes from numbers, or that mass equals power.

What Political Parties Do

There are different parties for different purposes, and every political party has its purpose and target. For better understanding, let me use this medium to explain the functions of Political Parties.

Educating the Electorate

The necessity to inform the population about the importance of voting in elections and to instill in them the importance of doing so helps political parties fulfill one of their most important roles. Without the political education or training provided to voters by political parties, many people might choose not to cast a ballot.

To Win political power

A political party's primary goal is to gain political power so that it may implement its philosophy. Every political party has its own ideology and platform, which outlines the goals it would like to pursue if it won power. A party obtains the political clout to implement its philosophy when it wins elections.

Responsibility for Government

It is possible to anticipate political parties taking accountability for the actions of their elected officials. Depending on the level of control the central party structure exercises, different amounts of responsibility apply.

Recommending candidates for political positions

All of the candidates required to run for various posts are projected or proposed by political parties. Before candidates run for office, the political parties would first nominate their own members. Choosing candidates to represent their party in various government positions is the parties' responsibility during an election.

Criticism

Political parties run propaganda campaigns to criticize the government and its actions in front of the general public. The activities of rival political parties, especially those in power, are thus always opposed by political parties. Political parties frequently attack one another to draw voters' attention to their party platform.

Fostering public opinion

Political parties influence public opinion via their actions before, during, and after elections. To grasp the majority of the problems at hand, the discriminating person must, nevertheless, review the statements of the major parties and be able to strike a balance. A political party is responsible for learning what the public thinks of the party's chosen flag bearer.

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